Report Presentation – The Form of the Report

There are various different formats for laboratory reports in use. These vary according to the type of work being reported, the purpose of the work or the report and the recipients for which the report is intended. Reports of original research conducted to further scientific knowledge in a specific area require a different format from reports of quality control experiments conducted in a company laboratory and yet other formats may be required for student reports on experiments. A student may be expected to follow one format for recording experiments in a laboratory record book as they are being performed and a different format when writing up the information from the record book for a formal laboratory report later in the term. The format may also vary due to differences in the type of laboratory work which is done for the different subjects. Where the purpose of the experiment is to confirm or reject a hypothesis, the format of the report will differ from that of an investigation of the quality, composition or properties of a product. The purpose of most student laboratory reports is to indicate the students’ understanding of aim, theory, laboratory procedures, etc., so would be emphasized in a format prescribed for these reports.

Finally, if the report is to be submitted to a lecturer, the format may be substantially different from that of a report submitted for publication in a professional journal, while a different format might be expected in a report to a government, an agency or private company. An obvious way in which laboratory report formats differ is the division of the report into sections. Whereas all laboratory reports can be thought of as consisting of four main parts (introduction, procedure, results and conclusion), there is considerable variation in the headings under which the information in each section of the report is to be written. Some of these headings may have an equivalent meaning: apparatus = materials, procedure = methods, data = results. In other cases, more specific headings are added where there is a need to draw attention to specific information in the report.

Example of the Form of a Report

1. Title needs to emphasize the nature of the work / investigation briefly (in less than 10 words) and accurately. This may also be called the Heading in a laboratory record book. State the date of performing the experiment.

2. Aim or Objective. This may be used in the place of the heading: Introduction. It is used to state clearly and concisely the purpose of the work.

3. Theory emphasizes the need to identify the background theory leading up to the experiment or the theory which the experiment is designed to illustrate or prove. This may also include a brief literature review to provide the status of current knowledge in the field.

4. Hypothesis – The hypothesis should be identified where the work is based on previous findings or involves the application of established theory to new situations. Note, however, that not all laboratory work is necessarily concerned with the testing of hypothesis.

5. Apparatus or Materials emphasize the need of the apparatus to be used and the way it is set up. It states the order of all steps to be taken.

6. Procedure or Methods emphasize the need to provide a step-by-step account of how the work was done, a separate heading may be used. This could be important to assess later a quality of investigation. It may include reference to a specific ISO or internationally accepted laboratory standard procedure.

7. Diagrams. A separate heading in the Procedure section devoted to diagrams or photographs emphasises the importance of presenting this information in a clear, concise form rather than written form.

8. Measurements or Results emphasize the importance of reporting specific readings or other observations as they were taken and to record results or outcomes with dates and signatures in order to provide evidence for possible future filing of a patent or intellectual property protection. In this step you take measurements, produce tables and give a relevant sample calculation of how you obtained the final results.

9. Graphs emphasize the need to present an overall summary of the results in a visual form. Data would be presented in tables whereas Graphs would show the relationships between the data and possible trends in a clear, easily read form.

10. Discussion or Results – It is one of the most important parts of the report as here you explain, analyse and interpret the results leading to conclusion. It shows the writer’s understanding of the concepts behind the data. If any differences with the Hypothesis or Objectives occurred explain the reason.

11. Conclusion – The purpose of the Conclusion is to discuss questions arising from the report and make suggestions for further work.

12. References – Here you state the information that has been obtained from textbooks, reference books, articles, investigations, etc. and where these sources of information are mentioned in the text. These references are used as a source of information for background theory, previous findings on which this work is based, laboratory procedures, etc. The References are listed numerically at the end of the report to enable a reader to consult these works for further details.

Tools for Making Effective Presentations and Keeping Your Audience Engaged

Stage Fright is a common disease of our dynamic corporate world. Astonishingly, not many senior executives undergo a formal training in the art of public speaking or in making presentations. And only those senior executives who understand the importance of posture, pauses, blank spaces, facial expressions, flow and quality of words, variation of voice pitch and timings try to learn this art.

I take it as serious business.

After having attended a formal “Effective Speaking” training program in 1996 at the British Foreign Office training center in London, I was quite hopeful to develop my skills as an effective speaker and presenter. This three day program covered the above techniques in addition to a session on effective writing. I remember our facilitators kept repeating;

“There is only one tool that helps deliver good speeches or presentations – Practice, practice and more practice”.

In the past 15 years, I have delivered uncountable presentations and spoke at numerous public forums, conferences and seminars. And equipped with what I learnt at British Foreign Office Training, I also tried to analyze various fellow presenters.

My observations confirm that particularly case of senior executive that did not go through a purpose-designed program, there always are three common key missing links:

- Control on body movements
- Voice variation
- Expressions

In my opinion, one cannot doubt the knowledge and quality of contents of an expert speaker. However if the above ingredients are missing, it is highly likely that your audience will lose interest. I have also seen that extensive and complicated presentations also cause severe damage to presenter’s ability to engage audience. I have also observed that some presenters keep going in the flow of their thoughts, and in trying to impress their audience forget that a normal human has a short attention time span. In my opinion, if your listeners can not retain 25% of what you have said – “you have failed to deliver your message”.

Let’s discuss the common what can be done to avoid “Presentation Disasters”:

Understand your audience:

Highly important. One must not prepare a presentation without knowing the audience. Try to gauge the level of education, expertise, areas of interest, issues faced, and then only develop your presentation. This is the only way to keep your audience engaged throughout.

Write from your heart: Often I have seen people delivering presentations or speeches written by others. For trained and experienced presenters, this is okay, however if you have not contributed towards developing the presentation or speech, speaking from your heart will be too challenging, hence creating an impact too will not be possible.

Avoid reading from paper: I am not a fan of reading from a written paper. Fine to do it only in case of a specific government level speech or expressing point of view, but for any other presentation, if you read from a paper, you are inviting a reputational disaster!

Practice: Okay, here is the key – as I mentioned above, for making highly effective presentations, extensive practice is unavoidable. And when I talk about practice, I am not only suggesting “speaking practice” but also reviewing the flow and carefully thinking about expected questions and how to respond to these questions. Surprisingly, very few presenters follow this strict rule.

I have also seen presenters struggling with technical glitches, ask yourself:

How difficult to have an additional soft copy of your presentation and a printed version? How difficult it is to check the microphone volume? How difficult it is to control the lights at the stage to avoid blindness?

And the final word “Your audience do not know what you would tell them next, so if you have forgotten a point, keep moving on, they won’t notice it”.

If you follow these points, you will be repeatedly performing better.

Happy presenting!!

Is Ripple a Worth Investment in 2021?

In this guide we are going to talk about Ripple – what will Ripple be Worth in 2021, and why you should consider investing in it.

By the end of this guide, you’ll have a greater understanding of Ripple — and you will be able to answer the questions “is Ripple worth buying this year?”, and if so, “what is the best exchange to buy ripple in India?”.

What is Ripple (XRP)?

Ripple has stood out as the go-to blockchain platform for cross-border transfers that are fast and affordable, from its inception. For the longest time, XRP was the third-largest cryptocurrency in the market. However, it was overtaken by Tether (USDT) and later lost several positions due to the uncertainty caused by the ongoing lawsuit.

The international transfer token was designed to solve the problem currently being faced by leading fiat transfer systems like SWIFT. Therefore, Ripple roared into existence in 2013 as a worldwide system supporting payments, international settlements, and a trading instrument. The token XRP is native to the blockchain, the XRP Ledger.

It is essential to keep in mind that Ripple distinguishes itself from Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (XRP) as the bridge between the fiat and the digital worlds. Moreover, Ripple believes that it is capable of solving real-world problems. Note that XRP is not a mineable coin like BTC and ETH because all its 100 billion tokens were created at the beginning of the project.

The only impediment is that XRP comes out as a centralized cryptocurrency and not decentralized like its peers, mostly because 55 billion of the total supply is under Ripple Labs’ ownership.

Why Should you Invest in Ripple in 2021?

There are all kinds of reasons why you might want to invest in Ripple today — Probably some you’ve never considered.

Ripple continues to grow in popularity in a gradual manner.

Interestingly, there was a rise in the number of new users joining the network in late 2020, and this has given crypto experts a positive impression of Ripple’s future.

And only in January 2021, the rise of user engagement in the network increased by 240%.

Ripple’s XRP token was never intended to be used as payment; it was only intended to be used to facilitate transactions on Ripple’s exchange. In any case, there are some online merchants that accept payment in XRP tokens.

The essential use case for XRP is for the movement of different monetary standards (or assets and commodities like gold or oil) over the Ripple network.

Moreover, investing in Ripple in 2021 might be a good move as XRP’s price is low at the

What Will Ripple be Worth in 2021?

Since the price of Bitcoin peaked at $62,000, some crypto traders prefer to invest smaller figures in cryptos with higher returns, such as Ripple. This could help Ripple increase in value as there is more demand.

The Economy Forecast Agency is optimistic when forecasting Ripple price in 2021, predicting that it could reach as high as $1.69 by October. Digitalcoin, which is known for a more conservative approach when forecasting prices, predicts that Ripple could reach 1.89 as early as March, and then drop to $1.86 by December 2021.

Is XRP a good investment in 2021?

XRP has delighted traders with some sharp gains in 2021 so far. While the token reached its lowest price of $0.20 per coin in January, it managed to rally up to $0.61 in mid-February for a short time.

However, there are many assumptions and speculations taking place when it comes to the investment in XRP during 2021.

Aside from The Economy Forecast Agency’s prediction mentioned above, there is another prediction made by Nigel Green, the CEO of the deVere Group, that Ripple could hit $1 and reach parity with the US dollar.

Though the prediction was actually made in 2018, Green’s reasoning behind his prediction still resonates. He referred to both the attention the XRP token receives and the token’s handiness. If correct, this would make the coin highly attractive to invest in.

Where to buy Ripple (XRP) in India?

Do you want to buy Ripple in India? Are you looking for the best exchange to invest in Ripple? Then, you have landed at the right place. I would suggest “Koinbazar”, India’s leading cryptocurrency exchange where you can buy ripple with INR instantly at the lowest trading fee. And also they have recently launched the cryptocurrency exchange mobile app for both Android and iOS platforms. With this app, you can buy, sell, and trade your favorite cryptocurrencies instantly. Users who download and sign in to the app will get FREE 10,000 SHIBA INU tokens instantly gets deposited into your koinbazar account.